Friday, May 22, 2020

Values of Early Childhood Education - 2736 Words

Values of Early Childhood Education in the Public Schools System: It all begins long before first grade Presented by: Ashley Austin April 14, 2009 EDFL 568 Jackson State University Research Proposal The purpose of my proposed study is to analyze the values of early childhood education in the public schools system. There are several things that I hope to accomplish by conducting this research. This research will further illustrate how a sound foundation on certain skills enhances the readiness for those students entering kindergarten. This research will also provide possible solutions for kindergarten retention rates in the public schools system. I plan to investigate the†¦show more content†¦In the speech and language section students need to ask meaning of words. This determines whether or not the child will be involved in the learning process in a classroom setting. The student must describe pictures and experiences. They must use appropriate verb tenses and grammar. This will ensure a core of knowledge for the kindergarten curriculum. Also, the student must recognize simple jokes, riddles, and absurdit ies. (Gisler and Eberts). The student’s gross motor coordination should also be an important factor in determining the child’s readiness for kindergarten. They must be able to walk downstairs using alternate feet, and hop on one-foot; this is to check the child’s balance and ability to walk. They must jump along a six- foot line with both feet. The student needs to be able to walk scissor steps across a line. Last, but not least, student must be able to begin to skip alternating feet. These evaluations are done in a few states nationwide. These evaluations do take place in certain districts in the state of Mississippi and are administered by properly trained educators. This needs to become a nationwide standard. (Williams) The next part of the evaluation should include fine motor coordination including using scissors to cut a straight line. It seems like an easy task but as a kindergarten teacher witnessing it first hand everyday; it is hard for students to comp lete this task.Show MoreRelatedEarly Childhood Education: Vision, Mission, and Philosophy Statement1258 Words   |  6 PagesEarly childhood is a time of curiosity, a time for play, and a time of rapid development. Every child is unique and deserving of an early childhood education that facilitates academic, social, and developmental growth through a variety of enjoyable experiences. Differentiated instruction adapts content, products and processes to meet the diverse learning needs and preferences of students (Thousand, Villa, Nevin, 2007). Friedrich Froebel, the creator of Kindergarten, believed that children growRead MoreTe Whariki1308 Words   |  6 PagesWhariki: Early Childhood Curriculum in which we follow as a framework for teaching in New Zealand. This report is going to cover the three broad age groups Te Whariki is based upon. It will explain the principles and strands of Te Whariki and the impact it has on a developing child. It will describe the purpose of Te Whar iki and discuss ways it is used by early childhood education services throughout New Zealand. It will describe Te Whariki’s support for bi-culturalism throughout the early childhoodRead MoreEarly Childhood Teacher And A Psychologist1525 Words   |  7 Pages3 2. Job Description 7-5 2.1. Early Childhood Teacher 4 2.1.1 Tasks 5 2.1.2. Personal Requirements 5 2.1.3. Education and Training 5 2.2. Psychologist 5-7 2.2.1 Tasks 5 2.2.2. Personal Requirements 6 2.2.3. Education and Training 7 3. My Personal Skills, Attributes and Values 7-8 3.1. Skills 7 3.2. Attributes 7 3.3. Values 8 4. Which Job Do I Suit Better? 8 Contentsâ€Æ' 1. Introduction Two jobs that I have always been extremely interested in include, an early childhood teacher and a psychologist. IRead MoreDeveloping A Safe And Healthy Environment1471 Words   |  6 Pageschild (Early Learning for, 2007, p. 3). In November 2004, the Ontario administration created a great plan called the â€Å"Early Learning for Every Child Today† (ELECT). By launching this plan, Ontario fulfilled its dream. In addition, the ELECT document contains comprehensive and rich sources of information that enhances, rather than modifies, planned curriculum in all Ontario’s care centers operating under the Day Nurseries Act. As long as early childhood professionals working in early childhood settingsRead MoreToward A Model Of Early Childhood Education : Foregrounding, Developing And Connecting Knowledge Through Play Based Learning1036 Words   |  5 Pagesmodel of early childhood environmental education: foregrounding, developing and connecting knowledge through Play Based L earning† by Amy Mackezie and Susan Edwards (2013). Researchers want to introduce an innovative learning model in the field of education to help teachers and educator incorporate environmental education while playing in preschool (Cutter Edwards, 2013). This article engages pedagogical accents allied with environmental education as well as early year’s childhood education (CreswellRead MoreLiterature Review : The Home Language Essay1570 Words   |  7 PagesStatistics (2013) shows that in New Zealand, most commonly spoken languages after English are Maori, Samoan, Hindi, Northern Chinese, French and Yue (Cantonese).This paper will focus on the benefits of learning two or more languages during the early years of education. The children with strong home language base learn other languages easily and it helps them to develop their cognitive, linguistic and social-emotional skills (Magruder, Hayslip, Espinosa Matera, 2013; Kaur, 2010; Ball, 2012, Nemeth, 2009)Read MoreOut line Of A Revised Philosophy1602 Words   |  7 PagesRevised Philosophy As a teacher I believe that it is my responsibility to role mode appropriate respect for children and families as I provide children with learning opportunities that encourage good morals and values and most of all showing understanding and patience. I believe that every child has their uniqueness and that every child has something special to bring into the centre. I believe that every child has their own potential and develop at their own speed. I believe that every child hasRead MoreDiversity and Difference in Early Childhood Essay1148 Words   |  5 PagesTOPIC: Diversity and Difference in Early Childhood Education Personal interest: My first awareness of racial identity and diversity occurred when I was in Year 3. Having being raised acknowledging acceptance of people of racial or cultural difference my thoughts of children of colour were positive and impartial. However, one day a boy in my class of Sri Lankan descent got into trouble with another student, but only the Sri Lankan boy was asked to go to the principal’s office. During our lunchRead MoreIntroduction to Early Childhood Education928 Words   |  4 PagesAs a parent choosing an early childhood education service can be a daunting process. There are many types to choose from, many methods and philosophies to be aware of, and a range of quality indicators to consider. This paper will identify three indicators in childcare centres that helped with my decision and relate to my personal values and beliefs associated with early childhood education. The first indicator is an effective and relevant curriculum and how it is applied into the policyRead MoreUnderstanding The Professional Roles Of Supporting Consultee And Consultant Field Of Early Childhood Education Essay1200 Words   |  5 Pages Why Program Selected The program I have selected for this assignment on consultations in Early Childhood settings is Sunshine Academy Early Education Center located in Brookline, Massachusetts. Sunshine Academy philosophy focuses on each child’s unique abilities and potential. Engaging qualified staff with a caring, nurturing, loving and supportive attitude, and to create opportunities for families, and staff to be involved in all aspects of your child’s care. Diversity of families of every

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Vladimir Nabokovs Lolita Essay - 1368 Words

Whether it be the long established bible for favoritism of gender or contemporary Thirteen Reasons Why for its explicit illustration of suicide, books are constantly banned for one reason or another. Sometimes, however, censored literature proves to be the most insightful and most original. Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita has been subject to criticism and censorship since its first publication in 1955. Critics constantly degrade the novel as repulsive and an endorsement of pedophilia. Although Lolita was censored for its sexual and obscene content, the characterization of protagonist Humbert Humbert proves it to be just as appropriate as other literature. Critics support Lolita’s censorship because they believe protagonist Humbert Humbert’s†¦show more content†¦This has occurred in society before where criminals convicted of murder simply blame it on their Schizophrenia or Bipolar disorder. Barbara Straumann, when analyzing the relationship between young Humb ert and his lover Annabel, states, â€Å"Yet, if the Annabel story is one of his fakes, it is fabricated to deceive himself...thinking about the cause of ‘the rift in my life’ giving rise, or rather arousing, his ‘excessive desire’ for underage girls† (94). Here, Straumann explores the unreliability of Humbert’s narration by claiming his story of Annabel as simply an excuse for his actions. Child molesters blaming their actions on traumas in the past was exactly the event critics fear if the ideas in Lolita become widespread. Proceeding from mental disorders, Humbert brings up his other â€Å"side† who mistreated Lolita. This ushers in dissociative identity disorder to the novel, another illegitimate excuse critics believe can be used as a justification for child molestation. Mark Nicholls also finds Humbert’s admission of another personality. He states, â€Å"For in Humbert, from the beginning, there is that other side of his p ersonality, the side in which sexuality...bound up with the pursuit of perversion† (162). Additionally, critics claim Nabokov characterizes Humbert so he is able to mask his evil nature behind his eloquence and charm. Humbert recountsShow MoreRelated Vladimir Nabokovs Lolita Essay605 Words   |  3 PagesVladimir Nabokovs Lolita Love, what is it? Love is a powerful feeling that is expressed in many ways throughout our society between men and women. Sometimes powerful feelings can have a negative ending, such as the ending in the novel Lolita. The affair, Humbert argues, was made possible because he resembled a movie star to Lolita, and ends when Quilty offers her a chance at Hollywood, something Humbert cannot do. Lolita is perceived by the adults in her life--Humbert, Charlotte, andRead MoreVladimir Nabokovs Lolita Essay2090 Words   |  9 Pagesmost obvious feature of Lolita, and the main reason for its staying power, is Humbert Humberts striking, complex, and enchanting prose. Humbert diverts the reader from his ugly actions, as a pedophile, with his pretty words. He goes beyond ordinary prettiness; his constant wordplay and verbal games force the reader to concentrate on language rather than on him. With his ability of enchanting words and wordplay, he develops the ability to freeze time and in turn freeze Lolita in her â€Å"nymphet† stateRead More The Effect of Language in Vladimir Nabokovs Lolita Essay2045 Words   |  9 PagesThe Effect of Language in Lolita      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   What really is reality? How can we define reality? The very nature of such a subjective subject means that there are as many answers as there are questioning minds on the planet. Therefore, reality can only be defined as what it means to each of us. We learn particular ways of looking at life from our experiences, which we gain from our interactions with others. This is the basis of an elaborate theory called the social construction of realityRead MoreEssay Obsession in Vladimir Nabokovs Lolita2272 Words   |  10 PagesObsession in Lolita      Ã‚  Ã‚   The relationship between Humbert Humbert and Lolita is no doubt a unique one. Many people who read the novel argue that it is based on lust, but others say that Humbert really is in love with Lolita. However, there is some astounding evidence that Humbert has an obsessional-compulsive disorder with Lolita. The obsession is clearly illustrated when Humberts actions and behavior are compared to the experts definitions and descriptions of obsession. In manyRead More Humberts Description of Lolita in Vladimir Nabokovs Lolita1002 Words   |  5 PagesHumberts Description of Lolita      Ã‚  Ã‚   In Chapter 31 of Part 1 of Lolita, Humbert and Lolita are in the lobby of the Enchanted Hunters only hours after consummating their sexual relationship. As Humbert arrives in the lobby to check out of the hotel, he observes Lolita as she sits reading a movie magazine in a large armchair, and his description of her progresses from a focus on her loss of innocence to a focus on her inner, demonic nature. As elsewhere in the novel, the reader here seesRead More The Unreliable Narrator in Vladimir Nabokovs Lolita Essay examples2020 Words   |  9 Pageswit, his intelligence, and - yes - his murderers fancy prose style, we may momentarily forget that he is indeed the monster he says he is (Rivers and Nicol 153).      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In his On a Book Entitled Lolita, Vladimir Nabokov recalls that he felt the first little throb of Lolita run through him as he read a newspaper article about an ape who, after months of coaxing by a scientist, produced the first drawing ever charcoaled by an animal: this sketch showed the bars of the poor creaturesRead More Lolita Essay1469 Words   |  6 Pages Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita When Vladimir Nabokov finished writing the novel Lolita he knew the explosive subject matter that he was now holding in his hands. After being turned down by publishing houses on numerous occasions to unleash his controversial story to the public, it was finally published by the French in 1955. Many critics were shocked and called it pornography while others praised his work. How could a pure thinking author conjugate ideas on issues so dark and depraved? What were hisRead MoreAnalysis Of The Novel Lolita And The Sound Tells A Story 1312 Words   |  6 PagesNovel and Film’s Sound Tells a Story We can go through Vladimir Nabokov’s novel Lolita and find a plethora of passages with beautiful, descriptive, and meaningful writing. Nabokov’s 309 pages of art gives the world of literature something worth discussing, analyzing, loving, and adapting. The art of Lolita has been adapted into film by director Adrian Lyne with his filmed titled â€Å"Lolita†, released in 1997. In Lyne’s adaptation of Lolita we specifically see an important passage come to life; theRead Moreï » ¿Does Nabokov’s ‘Lolita’ have any canonical value?1325 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Does Nabokov’s ‘Lolita’ have any canonical value? The literary canon is the group of texts considered to be of the most value. These are books which are generally taught in schools, colleges and universities. Authors that belong to the canon seem to follow certain characteristics; middle or upper class, white male authors who are dead. Writers such as Shakespeare, Milton and Chaucer are synonymous with the canon and also follow these characteristics. Vladimir Nabokov follows most of theseRead MoreVladimir Nabokov and Lolita757 Words   |  3 Pages A man of many talents, Vladimir Nabokov is known not only for his controversial work Lolita, he was also an avid lepidopterist – in particular, butterflies. There is no doubt that when penning Lolita’s character, Nabokov imprinted several butterfly characteristics on her. This essay however does not seek to investigate the parallels between Lolita and the metamorphosis of a butterfly. Rather, it takes the road less travelled and examines the parallels between Nabokov and Humbert Humbert, not as

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Mental Exploration with Super Natural Elements Free Essays

Man is born with love, happiness, gloom and desperation but along with it, an essence of an unknown fear. It is a fear of strange phenomenon that has imbibed within their soul from their ancestors’ ardent belief in supernatural forces in their social and cultural lives. The aura of feelings of that strangeness is so strong in many that they begin to believe their activities and their lives as a result of the strong influence of this strangeness. We will write a custom essay sample on Mental Exploration with Super Natural Elements or any similar topic only for you Order Now The traits of these feelings dominates’ their mental powers to the extent that they deem all the supernatural elements a reality. These feelings also rely on all the displeasures and pains that he feel in the life which he mostly find in environment and nature around. He began to feel nature as personification of devils and witches, the shapes given by fork-lore of the generations past and have become so part of our life that they took many of us in its vintage of belief. All the stories, Poe’s â€Å"Fall of the House of Usher†, Hawthorne’s â€Å"Young Goodman Brown†, and Bierce’s â€Å"An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge†, are psychopathic novels. In all these stories, protagonists have strange feelings of supernatural elements with evilness and dread-ness not withstanding shrouding in them but along with that there are also scenes of lives they had passed and hope for a future if they would have lived long. These stories are not just shrouding with physical fear and gruesome murder tales but there are certain more intrinsic qualities examining mental upheavals and heart swearing souls of protagonists. They are not in certain supernatural as other tales of Gothic literature but are given the supernatural touch to the objects and environment so close to protagonists. Poe gave the House of Usher a supernatural realm and Roderick Usher felt himself into close associated with the house and owed his odd behavior to the house. Usher had a feeling that his morale and his behavior were dependent on this house. From the beginning of the story only, it had been told that there was something very unusual and peculiar about this house. When narrator met Roderick Usher, he remarked†¦ â€Å"The physique of the gray walls and the turrents, and of the dim tarn into which they all looked down, had, at length, brought upon the morale of his existence.† (Poe, 1515). In the house, narrator also felt a sense of gloominess. Usher’s family though belonged to the ancient clan could not flourish, as there remained only one survival member from generations. It happened with Roderick Usher too, his twin sister Madeline died and Roderick with the help of narrator buried Madeline in the tomb in building itself. Often Roderick would become very uneasy and would hear strange sounds and often mutter himself. They also saw the bright looking gas surrounding the house. Roderick felt that they had buried Madeline alive and she would often come out of the tomb and felt that she was standing behind the door. Wind blew the door opened and Roderick was confirmed as he saw her standing in white robes covered with blood as if she was struggling to escape. She attacked Roderick as life was passing from her and Roderick died due to fear. Along with the death of Roderick, the house too collapsed and narrator escaped from the house. There is no doubt of the fact that writer had espoused upon the supernatural elements while giving the mental dilemma of Roderick. Poe developed claustrophobia in the story. The supernatural element is naturally the ghost of Madeline. Some scholars even point to the fact that Madeline never existed but only the part of Roderick’s mental imagination but Madeline was there. Both were twins and shared same sense of dispositions. Though Madeline died soon yet Roderick never found himself separated from Madeline: this is main thrust of the story and they were again united in the end when Madeline became the cause of Roderick’s death. There is no thematic element in the story but only reflects the psychological and claustrophobic disturbances that can haunt any lonely person in a huge mansion from the walls of which spring woeful tales of his ancestors. Hawthorne shared same tendencies with Edgar Allen Poe to bring supernatural elements. His writings shook our nerves; with his ardent touch of supernatural elements, he showed us our fears and inhibited desires. â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† has both the elements of supernaturalism in the form of devil having snakelike staff that he always carried with him. Hawthorne portrays devil as equal to Brown as if there is a certain common link between the two.   It emphasizes the puritan theology, that devil is everywhere in the world. It implies every man has the qualities impersonalized by goodness as well as evilness and we easily get distracted towards evilness. Brown got every chance to go back to Faith, his wife representation of religion, purity and goodness but he fell into the trap of devil as his ancestors did.   This meeting with supernatural element in the wilderness left Brown completely distorted in his vision of the world and as a result he got psychologically disturbed and began to live with empty heart. He began to see devil behind every bush and in the heart of every man but without realizing that devil was in his heart. He always felt within him evilness and his end mounted in hopelessness and wretchedness. Hawthorne said, â€Å"A stern, a sad, a darkly meditative, a distrustful, if not a desperate man, did he become, from the night of the fearful dream.† (Hawthorne, 612) He could not even listen to the holy psalm, because sin had already overpowered his soul. As compared to Edgar Allen Poe, his Young Goodman Brown has an element of theme. It is the theme of Christian doctrine over evilness. If a person once gets into the trap of evil, it is impossible for him to come out of it. He went into the evil world full of darkness and even though tried to come out of it could not emerge out and finally fell into an eternal doom. Ambrose Bierce’s Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge is a clear picture of man whose end is near-his feelings; psychological desires and tendencies brunt open his inherent willingness to live into this world. It is again a psychological dilemma of man punished to be hanged till death at Owl Creek Bridge. There is no direct supernatural element in this story as is in Hawthorne’s or Poe but Peyton Farquhar thoughts and some strange sounds when he saw the log drifting in the stream below and the strange light when he was falling in the river and drowning. There is an essence of realistic touch in the end of the story. In his dream, what Peyton Farquhar saw â€Å"strange roseate light†, trees that look like â€Å"giant garden plants†, and â€Å"great golden stars† (Bierce 274) are though supernatural in essence and immersed in the words as real but what exactly Peyton Farquhar’s was looking at were only artificial substances woven in his mind. All events of his attempts to escape and finally when he fell down from the shot was the psychological manifestation of a man within whom there was a realization that he could escape from the clutches of death and become free like a log drifting in a river before. His love and remembrance for his wife and children was so imbibed in his soul that he felt some supernatural power would come to save him from death, but his death was inevitable. Though he thought he had escaped from soldier’s claws yet when he was going to meet his beautiful wife, he fell down from the shot and in the end, we saw him dangling from the Owl Creek Bridge. There is a misdirection of plot in story pleading a man’s desire of life but if death has to come, then no one can escape from it. This is a thematic game that Ambrose Bierce’s played so naturally with the mental trip of Peyton Farquhar. Middle age was the period of Gothic literature-Witches, ghosts, spirits, etc. have formed the part of these stories and the whole environment have the feeling of strangeness in the midst of real lives, but the depth to which these stories are presented gave these stories a different dimension. These stories are more of man’s mental disturbances and emotional upheavals that take the form of supernatural beings. What a man thinks, idealizes and gets set backs in life is all form of devils and witches coming to grasp him in his jaws. This is the thematic element, Poe, Hawthorne and Bierce’s so profoundly and dexterously espoused in their stories. WORKS CITED Poe, Edgar Allan. â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher.† The American Tradition in Literature ei~th edition. Ed. George and Barbara Perkins. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994. 1511-1523. Hawthorne, Nathaniel. â€Å"Young Goodman Brown.† Norton Anthology American Literature. Ed. Nina Baym. New York: W.W Norton Company, 1999. 601-613. Bierce, Ambrose. â€Å"An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge.† Norton Anthology of American Literature: Volume 2. Ed. Nina Baym, et al. New York: W. W Norton, 1998. 268-275.       How to cite Mental Exploration with Super Natural Elements, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Macbeth Downfall Essays (635 words) - Characters In Macbeth

Macbeth Downfall In William Shakespeare s Macbeth, the main character, Macbeth, is a brave and loyal subject to the King of Scotland, but as the play progresses, his character begins to change drastically. Evil and unnatural powers, as well as his own desire to become king, take over his better half and eventually lead to his downfall. Three main factors that intertwine with one another that contribute to Macbeth s tragic end are the prophecies told by the three witches, Lady Macbeth s influence, and finally, Macbeth s excessive ambition which drove his desire to become king. The prophecy told by the three witches was what triggers the other factors that contribute to Macbeth s downfall. In the first act, Macbeth is told by the witches that he is to become the Thane of Cawdor and soon after, king. This prophecy arouses Macbeth s curiosity of how he can become the King of Scotland. Stay, you imperfect speakers. Tell me more. By Sinel s death I kno I am Thane of Glamis. But how of Cawdor? The Thane of Cawdor lives a prosperous gentleman, and to be king stands not within the prospect of belief. (Act 1. sc.3) This quote shows how the witches prophecy attracts Macbeth. It demonstrated how Macbeth thirsts for an answer from the witches of how is he to become the Thane of Cawdor and king. As the play continues, Macbeth slowly relies on the witches prophecies. It becomes a remedy for Macbeth s curiosity which corrupts his character. One of the witches prophecies becomes true when Macbeth is named the Thane of Cawdor by King Duncan. At this point, Macbeth seeks advice from his wife, Lady Macbeth. Lady Macbeth provides a scheme for Macbeth to assassinate the King. She is manipulative and persuasive in corrupting Macbeth s judgement. What beast was t then, that you break this enterprise to me? When you durst do it, then you were a man; And to be more than what you are, you would be so much more the man K Khad I sworn as you have done this. (Act 1. Sc.7) In this quote, Lady Macbeth is agitating Macbeth by saying he is not a man if he does not do what he says he is going to do, which is to murder the king. This angers Macbeth and enables him to follow Lady Macbeth s scheme to kill the king and continue killing. Macbeth s first murder is a trying experience for him. However, as the play progresses, killing seems to be the only solution to maintain his reign of the people of Scotland. Macbeth becomes increasingly ambitious as the play goes on. The witches prophecies and Lady Macbeth s influence intensifies his ambition and drives Macbeth to obtain and maintain his title of Scotland by whatever means, even murdering his best friend, Banquo. Upon my head they placed a fruitless crown K..No Son of mine succeeding K..If t be so, for Banquo s Issue have I filed my mind; For them the gracious Duncan I have murdered K..to make them kings, the Seeds of Banquo kings (Act 3. sc.1) At this point Macbeth s becomes more and more extreme to the point where no one stands in his way. His greed, violence, and hunger for power declines his character. The witches prophecy, Lady Macbeth s influence, and Macbeth s own ambition all contribute greatly to his deterioration of character which results in his downfall, which was death. All the causes link to one another. If it wasn t for witches prophecies, Macbeth would still be his ordinary self. Because of these prophecies, Macbeth s curiosity of possibly becoming king was brought out which led Lady Macbeth s controlling influence. Macbeth s ambition then builds and causes him to commit a series of murders, one of which, include his own best friend. If one of these factors were missing, Macbeth would not have been strong enough to carry the motive to kill King Duncan, which ultimately leads to his destruction.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Literally the Worst Mistake You Could Ever Make

Literally the Worst Mistake You Could Ever Make Literally the Worst Mistake You Could Ever Make Literally the Worst Mistake You Could Ever Make By Guest Author If most peoples employment of the word â€Å"literally† doesnt drive you mad, youre probably guilty of a few misuses yourself. Its one of the most common complaints of the grammar-savvy. Responding to our post on â€Å"Blackboard Moments† those usages of speech that provoke the same response as fingernails on a blackboard – Abbie points out one of her least favorite tropes of modern language: â€Å"Literally† replacing the word â€Å"very† in a sentence. I know someone who says â€Å"literally† several times in a row, when she wants to emphasize how â€Å"very† something is. One day I will have to shoot her. One hopes that Abbie isnt being literal here. Along with that other frequent offender, â€Å"basically,† the word â€Å"literally† is often mistakenly employed to provide emphasis for a word or phrase that might otherwise go overlooked: â€Å"literally furious,† â€Å"literally champing at the bit,† â€Å"literally scared me half to death.† As anyone reading this no doubt knows, correct use of the word â€Å"literally† literally looks almost nothing like this. Its a value-neutral term absent of any inherent emphasis or largesse. Correctly, â€Å"literally† should be used when a turn of phrase usually employed in a metaphorical sense enjoys a rare moment of non-metaphorical applicability: the phrase becomes true in a literal, words-meaning-exactly-what-they-say sense. If we know that â€Å"waiting with bated breath,† for instance, originates in Shakespeares allusion to someone whose breathing has stopped (or abated) in their anxiety, we might say we were â€Å"literally waiting with bated breath† if we had cause to hold our breath for an extended period of time. With our communications increasingly conceptual and metaphor-laden, more and more terms enjoy frequent non-literal use. In an online environment filled with abstract concepts and non-corporeal action, metaphorical language is particularly prevalent: â€Å"rolling out new features,† â€Å"clearing my inbox,† â€Å"laughing out loud.† Add to this the blurred boundary between idiom and clichà © and you have a language rife with metaphor. Those of us attuned to the true meaning of â€Å"literally† may jump at the chance to say something like â€Å"I literally jumped at the chance,† but be wary that youre not falling into the same trap as the misusers: using â€Å"literally† to convey emphasis, instead of simply finding a stronger word to make your point. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:"Based in" and "based out of"45 Synonyms for â€Å"Old† and â€Å"Old-Fashioned†20 Classic Novels You Can Read in One Sitting

Monday, March 2, 2020

If You Dont Know Jack, Youre a Jackwagon

If You Dont Know Jack, Youre a Jackwagon If You Don’t Know Jack, You’re a Jackwagon If You Don’t Know Jack, You’re a Jackwagon By Mark Nichol A recent news article prompted me to research the use of jack as a catch-all term: Apparently, a pair of pot smugglers ignored the sensible admonition â€Å"Don’t get high on your own supply† and, in a state of THC-fueled paranoia, called 911 to complain that while transporting their precious cargo, they were being harassed by undercover police officers in nearby vehicles. The caller referred to the alleged persecutors- probably just fellow motorists perturbed by the unsteady hand of the man at the wheel- as â€Å"jackwagons.† All usages of jack in English, it turns out, derive from the proper name Jack, a variant of the common names John (from English, but ultimately derived from the Hebrew name Yochanan, also the source of the name Jonathan) and Jacques (the latter of which, from France, is the origin of the word jacket). The ubiquity of these names in medieval England resulted in its use as a general term of address for the common man. (In Middle English, it was spelled various ways with an e at the end and pronounced â€Å"Jackie,† hence the diminutive form of the nickname.) The Scots equivalent, Jock, was the origin of the word jockey, used to describe someone who rides or drives a horse in a race or, by extension, operates a vehicle or a tool (as in â€Å"disk jockey,† the origin of the entertainment term DJ, also spelled deejay). To jockey, on the analogy of a jockey’s riding strategy, is to maneuver or negotiate for advantage. From the usage of Jack as a generic name stems such terms as lumberjack for a worker who cuts trees down and steeplejack for someone specializing in working on tall structures, jack-of-all-trades, referring to a person who is skilled at multiple types of jobs or tasks, and jack-o’-lantern (â€Å"jack-of-the-lantern,† originally synonymous with will-o’-the-wisp) and jack-in-the-box, the name for a toy and a carved pumpkin lit from within respectively, as well as â€Å"Jack Frost† as a personification of wintry cold and â€Å"Jack the Ripper† as a nickname for a notorious serial killer in Victorian London. (Jack-in-the-box was originally slang for a con man who switched out a full box for an empty one, and it acquired numerous other senses, too.) The name also became associated with sailors in the designation â€Å"Jack Tar,† thanks to the fact that men of the sea generally had a scent of tar about them. Fictional characters given the Everyman appellation in tales and nursery rhymes include the heroes in â€Å"Jack and the Beanstalk† and â€Å"Jack the Giant Killer† and personages in â€Å"Jack Sprat† and â€Å"Jack and Jill.† Jack was also applied to the lowest-ranking face cards in a deck of playing cards (which is the origin of jackpot, meaning â€Å"a prize,† and hence jack, a slang term for money) and to various small objects, including flags (as in â€Å"Union Jack†) and the game of jacks and its playing pieces. The sense of â€Å"small† is also responsible for the retort â€Å"You don’t know jack shit† (or just â€Å"jack†). It also appears in the name of animals and plants, including the jackass, or male donkey, the jackrabbit (a hare named for its long ears, suggestive of a donkey’s), and the jackdaw, a relative of the crow, plus the jack oak and jack pine trees, as well as the jack-in-the-pulpit plant. Jackanapes, from the nickname given to an upstart English nobleman, derives from â€Å"Jack of Naples,† a contemporary slang term for a monkey that came to refer to an impudent person. The cheese variety Monterey Jack was named after its first commercial producer, David Jack, who lived near Monterey, California. The noun jack, referring to various mechanisms, including a device for hoisting or raising a heavy object, and the verb form jack and the verb phrase â€Å"jack up† derive from the fact that the machines did the work of a common laborer. Jackhammer and jackknife, as well as the term bootjack, for a device used for removing boots, stem from this usage as well. (However, jackboot, referring both to a boot worn by cavalry soldiers and a later marching boot worn by German and Soviet military personnel- hence the word’s subsequent association with totalitarian oppression, although jackboots have been worn by soldiers of democratic nations as well- is unrelated: The cavalry jackboot was originally fortified with chain mail, and an Old French word for that material is jaque.) So, how did we get to the insult jackwagon, popularized in a television commercial featuring actor and former drill sergeant R. Lee Ermey? As a less offensive alternative to jackass as a derogatory label, it may derive from a nickname for the chuck wagon (chuck comes from a slang word for food), a vehicle carrying cooking implements and supplies for a cattle drive or a wagon train, or for any of one of several other types of wagons that might bring up the rear of a procession of other vehicles. The seemingly lowly status of the trailing wagon, literally left in the dust of what came before it, presumably came to be associated with a person of low character or intelligence. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Types of RhymeYay, Hooray, Woo-hoo and Other AcclamationsWhat Is the Meaning of "Hack?"

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Political Corruption Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Political Corruption - Essay Example But it is more often assumed than tested and proven. And on the politics political scandal is a black spot which restrain the flow of development and create a haphazard situation on the society breaking the peace and harmony. Corruption is a disease, a cancer that eats into the cultural, political and economic fabric of society, and destroys the functioning of vital organs. In the words of Transparency International, "Corruption is one of the greatest challenges of the contemporary world. It undermines good government, fundamentally distorts policy, leads to the misallocation of resources, harms the private sector and private sector development and particularly hurts the poor" (TI,1998). Corruption is found almost everywhere, but it is stubbornly entrenched in the poor countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, it is widespread in Latin America, it is deep-rooted many of the newly industrialized countries, and it is reaching alarming proportions in several of the post-communist countries. The issue of corruption has to some extent entered the political and economic sciences from the new interest in the role of the state in the developing world, and in particular from the idea that the state is an indispensable instrument for economic development. The 1997 World Development Report stated that An effective state is vital for the provision of... An effective state is vital for the provision of the goods and services - and the rules and institutions - that allow markets to flourish and people to lead healthier, happier lives. Without it, sustainable development, both economic and social is impossible (The World Bank 1997). Political corruption not only leads to the misallocation of resources, but it also affects the manner in which decisions are made. As political corruption is the operation of illegal procedure of the various offices, it affects the institutions of the government as well as the political system and political ideology. Political corruption is more than a divergence from formal legal form of justice. It occurs when misdeeds and wrong doings take place in the proceedings and the ideology of the politics of a country. Some definitions of corruption also emphasize the point that the rulers as a group or class, or as an institution or organization, make unjustified use of their influence to extract resources for the benefit of the group as such. Many well-known and well documented cases of grand corruption have involved political parties (ruling parties in particular, but also prospective ruling parties), entire administrative bureaus, and national governments. 3. Scandal Etymologically Scandal means a behavior or an event that people think it morally or legally wrong and causes public feelings of shock or anger. It may be an action, work or event of a particular person and that work is regarded in the society as a wrong doing or it is seen from a negative angle. There is divergence of scandals and different philosophies exist regarding this matter. A scandal is a widely publicized occurrence involving allegations of bad behavior, dishonor, or moral infuriate. A scandal may be based on